Electron Excitation

As previously discussed, atoms have a nucleus made of protons and neutrons surrounded by an electron cloud. An electron cloud is a way to describe where the electrons might be at any one time. Electrons aren’t stuck in certain spot of space relative to the nucleus. Instead, they tend to fill the shape of orbitals, … Continue reading Electron Excitation


Energy Series: Nuclear Power

I’ve decided to start a short series on the different types of energy sources in use and their pros and cons. First, we’ll start with perhaps the most controversial energy source: nuclear. If you remember my Basic and Background Science post on Atoms and Elements, then you know that an atom is composed of a … Continue reading Energy Series: Nuclear Power

Priority Funding of Science Research

Each year a new national budget for discretionary spending is proposed, edited, accepted, and then used to divide up federal funds. Currently, the 2018 budget has been proposed and is undergoing edits. For reference, I’ll use the 2017 budget.1 Part of this discretionary spending goes to science and technology research, or Federal R&D.  It’s important … Continue reading Priority Funding of Science Research

Fluoride Water Treatment

For the past few years I’ve heard a lot about “nasty chemicals,” especially when people discuss their city water.  Municipality water in the US is treated in a multitude of ways, one of them being with chemical treatment. It’s common to add chlorine to kill dangerous microbes, or calcium to soften water. I wanted to … Continue reading Fluoride Water Treatment

Polarity and Bonding

Polar/ nonpolar and bonding: molecules, such as small molecules like water, or large macromolecules like proteins, have properties based on their polarity. Polarity is a spectrum. A molecule can be very nonpolar, or it can be slightly polar, or very polar. Polarity is a concept based on how the electron density exists around each atom … Continue reading Polarity and Bonding

Genetic mutations

The genetic code is replicated during mitosis. If the code is replicated incorrectly, such as a code that should be “AGCT” becomes “ACCT,” by mistake of DNA replication protein machinery, this is called a mutation. There are several types of DNA mutations: Missense mutation: a base pair substitution that causes the amino acid to change. … Continue reading Genetic mutations